The electrospinning technique has proved to be very beneficial for the integration of drugs in drug delivery systems.
FREMONT, CA: It is vital for today’s drug delivery systems to allow a localized and enhanced control on drug release for focusing on implantable nanoscaled delivery devices. The electrospinning’s versatility enables the creation of porous fibrous nano to micron-sized structures in a reproducible and controlled way. Besides, a biodegradable electrospun membrane can be implanted near a diseased organ for localized and sustained drug release/delivery. Multiple techniques can be put into use to integrate drugs or biomolecules in electrospun nanofibres. The following are some of the methods and statements that are transferable to electrospraying of particles.
1. Emulsion electrospinning: The protein, drug, or compound is blended in the electrospinning solution with a surfactant, enabling nano and microspheres formation loaded with the drug. The resulting fibers will possess a core-shell conformation with the micro-nanospheres in the fiber’s core surrounded by the polymer.
2. Supramolecular interactions: Proteins, drugs, and other bioactive substances can be bound or integrated as well in the polymer backbone or in the side chains via supramolecular chemistry. The drug is expressed on top of the fiber or steadily released by time, based on the polymer degradation rate.
3. Direct blending/dissolution: Proteins, drugs, or other bioactive substances can be integrated by adding them to the electrospinning polymer solution directly. Mostly, the drug is released through diffusion. Besides, the structures’ degradation rate is tuned by selecting appropriate material and by controlling the size of fiber.
4. Coaxial electrospinning: Coaxial electrospinning allows two distinct solutions to be spun at the same time, producing a core/sheath structure. It is utilized when the drug possesses limited resistance against the utilized solvent or is immiscible with a polymer solution. The fibers will compose the resultant mesh with a core/shell structure. The polymer will act as the shell, shielding, and holding the drug in the fiber’s core. The drug release can be accommodated by the thickness of the wall and polymer-drug interactions.
5. Post Processing: Besides, the proteins, drugs, and bioactive substances can be bound to the surface of the fiber utilizing post electrospinning treatments with chemical bonding or simple processes of dip coating.
Current studies have shown that electrospun fibers with great surface area to volume ratio and great interconnectivity offer ample of benefits. Encapsulating these bioactive molecules into electrospun fibers enables for localized delivery of antimicrobials, antiscarring agents, anti-inflammatories, immunosuppressives, antineoplastic agents, cytokines, growth factors, genes (DNA and RNA), enzymes, and other vital bioactive ingredients to target sites.