How Advanced Technologies Help in Development of Therapeutic...
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How Advanced Technologies Help in Development of Therapeutic Antibodies

Stacey Smith, Pharma Tech Outlook | Thursday, February 04, 2021

The highly advanced therapeutic antibody technologies can treat chronic diseases like cancer and tumor.

FREMONT, CA: In the past few years, the antibodies had an immense impact because of the research tools in oncology, especially in hematological malignancy and stem cell transplantations. The achievement of the antibody technology is impressive in both the cases of diagnostics and therapeutic outcomes. Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) have been utilized in several implications like toxins detection using (ELISA) enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay in specific samples and immune-histochemical (IHC) screening of tumor cell from the normal (cells) tissues (with adequate specificity and affinity potentials).

For several decades' radiotherapy, surgical therapy, and chemotherapy were the most popular applicable treatments for curing human cancer. There are many side effects of such therapies on cancer patients, and the successfully curing the disease was still a massive challenge. In recent times, chemotherapy is widely utilized as a cancer therapy. Even problems like drug resistance, strong painful nature on the cancer patients, and high chances of relapsing are its drawbacks. Radiotherapy can also kill normal healthy cells when it is killing the tumor cells. The surgical therapies are also restricted to removing all the unwanted tumor cells because, due to the metastasis, cancer has spread to several body parts. The advancement and increasing growth of the monoclonal antibody technology can produce an antibody with accuracy, and it offers the big companies some hope related to such therapies.

From murine to fully human

The increasing development of the monoclonal antibody technology for therapeutic purposes has been used to treat hematological malignancies and other cancers. Furthermore, it would have been difficult for immunogenicity to implement murine antibody to humans as part of therapy because the human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) has limited the response to murine antibodies' administration. The humanization can be accomplished by reducing the murine content utilizing the antibody engineering technology. 

Murine antibodies

The first type of antibodies that can be used as therapy for a human is the murine antibodies. Furthermore, when the anti-CD3 murine antibody (OKT3) was acknowledged as the first antibody therapy for treating kidney transplantation because of the limitation of HAMA (Human anti-mouse antibody) immunogenicity, the antibodies had drawbacks which reduced the efficiency of the antibody. Although the murine technology has limitations still, they are useful in vitro and vivo (mouse model) pre-clinical experimental performs. 

Chimeric antibodies

The chimeric antibody was the first human monoclonal antibody. The chimeric antibodies are not entirely human, but the researchers can utilize them for diagnosis and have low immunogenicity compared to the murine antibodies. 

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