A new model has been introduced for the effective treatment of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Is it going to be successful?
FREMONT, CA: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has been one of the most difficult brain cancers to study and diagnose due to tumor heterogeneity. Many treatment approaches, like radiation, surgery, and chemotherapy, have proven to slow down the growth of the tumor. However, unfortunately, it lasts only for a short span of time, and the cure remains elusive.
Recently, researchers from Penn Medicine have shown how glioblastoma can be helpful is quickly testing personalized treatment strategies.
The brain organoids grown in the lab are derived from human pluripotent stem cells or patient tissues. Further, they are grown to the size of a pea and are capable of recapitulating vital genetic composition, architecture, brain cell type heterogeneity, for example. Such models empower researchers to recreate major features of the patient’s diseased brains to get a clear picture of their cancer and enabling them to discover ways to treat it.
The timing and the capability of maintaining cell type and genetic heterogeneity make organoids so attractive in GBM. The brain tumor organoids developed by researchers grow much rapidly in comparison to other models, which require more time to exhibit gene expression and other features that almost represent tumor. It is crucial as present treatment regimens are initiated one month following surgery. So, it is beneficial to have a road map sooner.
In the new study, the research group removed fresh tumor specimens from 52 patients for growing corresponding tumor organoids in the laboratory. The overall rate of success for developing glioblastoma organoids (GBOs) was 91.4 percent.
Samples of eight GBO were then implanted into adult mouse brains, which showed rapid and aggressive infiltration of cancer cells and retained essential mutation expression up to three months later. The major hallmark of GBM was the infiltration of tumor cells, which was noticed in the mouse models into the surrounding brain tissue.
The researchers also noticed the privileges in the organoids diagnosed with CAR T therapies, which are used in ongoing clinical trials for targeting the EGFRvIII mutation, a disease driver. In six GBOs, the research group displayed a particular effect on patient GBOs with the help of EGFRvIII mutation with an extension of CAR T cells and reduction in EGFRvIII expressing cells.
The ultimate goal of the research group is to work towards the future where they are able to study a patient’s organoid and test, which CAR T will be best against their tumor.
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